1. provided an excellent example of how the legal and orderly implementation of popular sovereignty might take place.
2. got no support from the presidential administration of Millard Fillmore.
3. from out of state invaded Kansas, to control the election through fraud and intimidation.
4. saw that the cause was lost and retreated from the contest.
1. Northerners desiring either the abolition of slavery altogether or those Northerners who wanted to reserve new lands for white settlers.
2. Southerners who had concluded that it was futile to press for slavery’s expansion into an area where it could not flourish.
3. Southerners who could not afford to relocate their agricultural operations to the West.
4. Northerners and Southerners who were morally opposed to slavery
1. the environment in one of Stephen A. Douglas’s favorite taverns.
2. a popular local contest for woodsmen in Anderson, South Carolina, in the mid-nineteenth century.
3. the environment of the U.S. Congress early in 1860 as congressmen struggled to elect a Speaker of the House.
4. the state of affairs at a typical nineteenth-century horse-racing track.
1. they generally believed the North would quickly send invading armies to the Upper South.
2. the U.S. army had already assembled on the northern bank of the Potomac River as a persuasive deterrent to secession.
3. they had great difficulty in getting together a quorum of legislators to debate the issue.
4. they simply did not have as great a stake in slavery as the states in the Lower South.
1. the balance of power between the North and the South in Congress.
2. whether or not the North, which had a greater manufacturing sector than the South, should be more heavily taxed for road construction.
3. whether or not the nation should engage in a civil war.
4. tariffs and interstate commerce regulations.
1. the Missouri Compromise was constitutional.
2. Congress had the power to prohibit slavery in the territories.
3. black people in the United States could be declared citizens under certain circumstances.
4. Dred Scott could not legally claim violation of his constitutional rights because he was not a citizen of the United States
1. Robert Toombs wrote, “The Republicans have pledged to respect our slave property and I know them as honorable men.”
2. Alexander Stephens wrote, “Revolutions are much easier started than controlled. I consider slavery much more secure in the Union than out of it.”
3. James Henry Hammond wrote, “Abraham Lincoln is no abolitionist, that I am certain of.”
4. Howell Cobb wrote, “Abraham Lincoln has given me his personal assurance that our most cherished institution is safe in the arms of a Republican administration
1. guerrilla war engulfing the territory.
2. an increase in the number of proslavery demonstrations nationwide.
3. the realization of the need for a revote on the popular sovereignty issue.
4. government troops declaring martial law in the territory
1. selecting Jefferson Davis as their candidate.
2. deadlocked over their choice for seventy-two ballots.
3. splitting the party into southern and northern factions over the issues of popular sovereignty and a federal code protecting slavery in the territories.
4. agreeing unanimously on Stephen A. Douglas
1. rather belligerent toward Southerners, threatening to unleash the army on them if any more states seceded from the Union.
2. clearly uncomfortable with the principles he espoused regarding the Union.
3. reassuring and conciliatory toward the South on the issue of slavery but firm and inflexible concerning the perpetuity of the Union.
4. waiting until the last minute for word about the latest conditions in the South before he delivered his speech.
1. Dred Scott was free, he was a citizen only of the state of Missouri, and the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional. 0%
2. Dred Scott was free, the Missouri Compromise was constitutional, and northern blacks were nominal citizens who must pass a revised examination to become full citizens under the Constitution.
3. Dred Scott was free, he was a citizen of the United States, and the Missouri Compromise was constitutional.
4. while the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional, every person born in America had the right to bring suit in any court in the land.
1. secure mining rights in the Southwest.
2. support the dream of a southern route for the transcontinental railroad.
3. remove troublesome Native Americans from the area ceded by Mexico.
4. set up James Gadsden as territorial governor and possible presidential candidate.
1. strengthening the Democratic Party by unifying its northern and southern branches.
2. seeming to indicate clearly that the issue of slavery could be determined in any territory long before the moment of statehood.
3. giving credence to the belief in the North that a Slave Power conspiracy existed and was laboring to subvert northern liberties.
4. precipitating the resignation of Supreme Court justices from the North.
1. was morally wrong.
2. was an institution dangerously misunderstood by most Northerners.
3. would be acceptable with a few humane modification
4. should be allowed to expand into the territories but be abolished where it already existed
1. a majority of the popular vote and strong support in the free states.
2. some support in the slave states and strong support in the free states despite unified opposition.
3. some support in all parts of the nation.
4. strong support in the free states despite winning only 39 percent of the national popular vote
1. an avid supporter of the Fugitive Slave Act.
2. pandering to public sentiment by insisting that slavery was wrong, something that Douglas claimed Lincoln did not really believe.
3. uninformed on some of the key issues pertinent to their debates.
4. an abolitionist and color-blind egalitarian who loved blacks
1. Republican ideology in asserting that only individual slave owners, and not Congress, could stop the spread of slaver
2. the legal profession, of which he was a part, in believing that the Supreme Court should end slavery.
3. the white northern male belief that although slavery was not morally wrong, it would eventually destroy national unity and should thus be eliminated.
4. Republican ideology in believing that Congress must stop the spread of slavery and put it on the course to extinction
1. a reaction to large numbers of Roman Catholics coming to the United States from Germany and Ireland.
2. a political organization designed to include all Americans.
3. an organization advocating equal rights for all immigrants.
4. part of the movement to bind together Americans who had grown apart because of the continuing controversy over slavery
1. Abraham Lincoln scored a landslide victory against Stephen A. Douglas and became a U.S. senator.
2. Stephen A. Douglas scored a landslide victory against Abraham Lincoln and became a U.S. senator.
3. Stephen A. Douglas won a senate seat, but Abraham Lincoln became nationally known.
4. the Democrats shunned Stephen A. Douglas
1. became a wedge that divided the nation based on the issue of slavery in the territories.
2. gave rise to the Peace Democrats.
3. convinced Americans that continuing to support military heroes as presidential candidates was unwise.
4. awakened the South to the realization that slavery could never survive in the Southwest.
1. moved north into Canada.
2. pushed farther west.
3. concentrated on reservations in Nebraska and Kansas.
4. moved east to live in Iowa
1. caused southern congressmen to propose tighter restrictions on all Northerners wishing to enter the South.
2. motivated the federal government to remove the arsenal from the community.
3. influenced dozens of slave uprisings.
4. left an increasing number of southern whites to conclude that many Northerners wanted to end slavery with violence.
1. a vote by Supreme Court justices to decide whether or not territories might sanction slavery.
2. people who settled the territories to decide whether or not they wanted slavery.
3. a national referendum on the issue of slavery expansion.
4. a special congressional commission to decide slavery’s fate in the territories.
1. refrained from making any public statements concerning the framework of the Kansas government.
2. stood solidly behind southern Democrats and President James Buchanan in supporting the document.
3. demanded that the votes be recounted before he would take a stand on that issue.
4. broke with the Buchanan administration and the southern members of his party by coming out against the proslavery constitution.
1. slavery be prohibited in California but allowed in the remainder of the area ceded by Mexico.
2. any slaves taken in the area ceded by Mexico be freed at age twenty-eight.
3. slavery be prohibited throughout the entire area ceded by Mexico.
4. slavery be allowed to expand only into the area below the southern boundary of Missouri ceded by Mexico
1. burned Lincoln in effigy in most major areas of the South.
2. passed temporary laws allowing women to vote in the hope of defeating the Republicans.
3. refused to allow Lincoln’s name to appear on the ballot in ten of the fifteen slave states.
4. boycotted the polls in numerous states.
1. remain in Washington and do nothing.
2. call several special sessions of Congress to deal with the circumstances.
3. prod Congress to beef up the military in case there was a war.
4. spur the Supreme Court into action to get a ruling on secession before Lincoln took office.
1. belief that citizenship was too easily achieved by ill-prepared foreigners.
2. opposition to the extension of slavery into any territory of the United States.
3. conviction that the federal government should do much more to implement social reform in the nation.
4. belief that Congress should move quickly to abolish slavery where it existed.
1. by including some of the earliest research showing scientific evidence of the effects of slavery on those enslaved.
2. by suggesting that the federal government should pay the fair market value for all slaves and then relocate them west of the Mississippi River.
3. by arguing that the North was in no way responsible for the institution of slavery.
4. because it was a compelling novel and a vehicle for a stirring moral indictment of slavery.
1. organized the Constitutional Union Party and put forth an extensive platform much different from anything offered by the Republicans and Democrats.
2. joined Republicans in an effort to preserve the Union.
3. attempted to revive the Whig Party.
4. organized the Constitutional Union Party, a political party that had no platform.
1. he supported high tariffs and a Pacific railroad, and had begun denouncing the South for the sin of slavery.
2. he threatened to lead his own party-splitting exodus if the party did not nominate him.
3. he was a moderate on the volatile issue of slavery, demonstrated solid Republican credentials, and represented the crucial state of Illinois.
4. fellow Republicans Edward Bates and Salmon P. Chase lobbied the nominating committee to select Lincoln.
1. demonstrated the determination of some abolitionists.
2. demonstrated the shortcomings of popular sovereignty.
3. helped to unify Northerners and Southerners against Brown’s violent actions.
4. reassured Southerners about the safety of slavery.
1. halting the spread of an institution as economically valuable as slavery would cause dire financial consequences for the United States.
2. the democratic foundations of the United States made it impossible for a Supreme Court decision to supersede the implementation of a concept such as popular sovereignty.
3. Northerners need not worry about the effect of the Dred Scott decision on the future of slavery in the territories, because the decision would very likely be reversed in the near future.
4. even though settlers could not, at that time, pass legislation barring slavery in the territories, they could ban slavery just as effectively by not passing the police laws necessary to protect slave property.
1. he agreed with the arguments of proslavery theorists about the best way to organize southern society.
2. he needed southern support to pass his legislation, the price of which was opening up the Nebraska territory to the possibility of slavery.
3. unbeknownst to his colleagues and constituents, Douglas pocketed large sums of money from southern legislators in return for supporting their causes.
4. he had never supported the Missouri Compromise in the first place.
1. suggested that the North ought to secede from the Union if a proslavery president should happen to be elected in 1852.
2. announced that it was no longer possible to work in any fruitful way with Southerners in Congress.
3. stated that there was “a higher law than the Constitution”—the law of God.
4. advocated that the North marshal all its resources to stop slavery expansion in the territories and to roll back the institution of slavery where it already existed.
1. applauded the actions of this intrepid foe of slavery.
2. concluded that his ideals couldn’t excuse violence.
3. stated that they were sorry they had not contributed money to his cause.
4. clearly thought him insane.
1. expanded their platform to address other issues.
2. nominated John C. Breckinridge for president.
3. gained popularity in the South.
4. focused on the slavery issue with more intensity than ever.